Osteoporosis is a condition that affects bone density and quality, leading to an increased risk of fractures. It causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.
What Causes Osteoporosis?
Given below are the common causes of Osteoporosis:
Calcium deficiency: 
A lifelong deficiency of calcium plays a big role in the development of Osteoporosis. Low calcium levels lead to decreased bone density, early bone loss, and increased fracture risk. In addition, a lack of vitamin D can also result in Osteoporosis.
Hormonal Imbalances
Low estrogen in women and testosterone deficiency in men accelerates Osteoporosis. In addition, an imbalance in other hormones such as parathyroid hormone and growth hormone also leads to bone loss.
Sedentary lifestyle and Excessive alcohol consumption and Tobacco use
People with an inactive lifestyle or a condition like paralysis or muscular dystrophy are more likely to suffer from Osteoporosis. It happens because bones tend to get weakened if they aren’t worked.
Steroids intake
Long-term use of oral or injected corticosteroid medications, such as prednisolone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process.
Medical conditions
The risk of osteoporosis is higher in people who have certain medical problems, including: Celiac disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Kidney or liver disease, Cancer, Multiple myeloma, Rheumatoid arthritis
Surgery done in past

Surgery like hysterectomy done in female in past are higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
Symptoms of Osteoporosis?
Generally, there are no symptoms of Osteoporosis in its early stages. But once Osteoporosis weakens the bones, the patients show the
following symptoms:
 Back pain due to fracture in spine
 Loss of height over time and A stooped posture
 Generalised body pain
OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TESTS
Your doctor can order tests to diagnose osteoporosis like Bone mineral density (BMD) tests are also known as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) scans. These X-rays use very small amounts of radiation to determine how solid the bones of the spine, hip or wrist are.
Complications
Compression fracture
Bone fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. Hip fractures often are caused by a fall and can result in disability. In some cases, spinal fractures can occur even due to trivial injury to the back.
Treatment of Osteoporosis
Conservative treatment It includes exercise, life style modifications, calcium, vitamin and mineral supplements and high protein diet with some anti-osteoporotic
medications.
Medications Osteoporosis medications commonly prescribed include bisphosphonates, calcitonin nasal spray, estrogen agonists, or antagonists or injection teriparatide hormone.
Surgical Treatment Surgery is recommended in patients who has got fracture in spine due to weaken bones. The commonly surgery performed under local anesthesia are Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty. These are minimally invasive procedures that use needles to inject bone cement into the fracture vertebrae. Spinal fixation and decompression is done in patients with fracture with cord compression.