Sciatica refers to the pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve travelling through buttock -to- legs – to foot. It arises from lower back due to prolapsed discs or many other causes.
Symptoms of sciatica
The pain radiating from the lower back down to the legs is a hallmark symptom of sciatica and usually affects one side of the body. However, other symptoms include:
 Pain in the lower back, butt, calf muscles, or legs.
 Difficulty in walking and sitting
 Electric sensations in legs
 Tingling or numbness in legs
 Muscle weakness Feeling paralyzed in legs
What causes Sciatica?
. Sciatica occurs when the sciatic nerve is pinched in lumbar spine most commonly due to herniated disc. However, many other causes are there which can cause sciatica like Degenerative Disc Disease, Osteoarthritis, Sudden Injury or Bone tumor.
Risk factors
Risk factors for sciatica include:
Age. Age-related changes in the spine, such as herniated disks or canal stenosis, are the most common causes of sciatica.
Obesity. Excess body weight increases the stress on the lower back and contribute to the spinal changes that trigger sciatica.
Prolonged sitting. People who sit for prolonged periods or have a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to develop sciatica than active people are.

 Have injury/previous injury
 Lack proper posture in the weight room
 Lead an inactive lifestyle
 Smoking and diabetes
How to diagnose Sciatica pain?
Through physical examination of back with detailed medical history helps in diagnosing sciatica. Your doctor may prescribe few tests with radiological imaging for further confirming it like below –
 Spinal X-rays to look for spinal fractures, disk problems, infections, tumors, and bone spurs.
 Magnetic Resonance Tests (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans to evaluate bone and soft tissues with nerve compression of the back.
 An Electromyography test is recommended to help examine electrical impulses traveling through the sciatic nerve and the respective response of muscles.
Sciatica Treatment options
The first line of treatment for sciatica pain is conservative treatment approach. However, if the symptoms worsen or the pain shows no response to conservative
treatment, your doctor may advise for surgery.

Although the pain associated with sciatica can be severe, most cases resolve with non-operative treatments in a few weeks. People who have severe sciatica that’s
associated with significant leg weakness or bowel or bladder changes might be candidates for surgery.
The conservative approach includes:
 Ice and heat treatment
 Chiropractic and Physiotherapy including Stretching exercises for back muscles with some medications.

In some cases, your doctor might recommend injection of a corticosteroid medication (STEROID INJECTION) into the area around the involved nerve root that will help in reducing pain in leg and back by suppressing inflammation around the irritated nerve. If the pain does not respond to conservative treatment, the surgeon may
advise the surgical options to the patient.

The surgical options include Microdiscectomy which is a minimally invasive procedure to remove disc fragments or bone spur which are compressing the nerves or Laminectomy which is also a minimally invasive procedure that aims to remove the lamina that is the roof of vertebrae to decompress the nerve roots.