Spinal deformity is an abnormal curvature of the vertebral column. All spinal deformities involve problems of the curve or rotation of the spine. Generally, the common presentation of spinal deformity is in the childhood age. Adult spinal deformities can be caused by age-related wear and tear in disc and joints in spine.
Types of Deformity- The most common spinal deformities are of two types: Scoliosis and Kyphosis. Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve deformity, whereas Kyphosis refers to an abnormally rounded upper back. Sometimes Kyphosis can occur along with Scoliosis, causing Kyphoscoliosis.
Symptoms and Presentation of spinal deformity
Depending on the type of spinal deformity, the symptoms may vary.
Given below are some of the symptoms commonly found in both kinds of
spinal deformities:
 Uneven shoulders, hips, or leg lengths
 One side back bending 
 A rotated back
 Back pain
 Breathing Problems due to reduced area in the chest for lungs to expand
 Cosmetic problem
Diagnosis- A physical exam of the patient’s spine is the first step of diagnosis. In this test, the doctor checks for spine curvature and whether the shoulders, hips, iliac crest are symmetrical. However, sometimes symptoms of spinal deformities may overlap with other disorders, and they may not be recognized by merely the physical examination of the back. Some of the imaging tests are there to diagnose the underlying problem and root cause are XRAY, CT SCAN and MRI of the whole Spine.
Treatment of Spinal Deformities Kyphosis or Scoliosis treatment can be non-surgical or surgical, depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s overall
health. A conservative approach is taken when the spinal deformity is in the early to the mild stage. However, surgery is recommended in case of a high degree of angular deflection.

Non-surgical treatment
Non-surgical treatment consists of Bracing  and physiotherapy.
Surgery treatment
Surgery is considered if:
 The patient experiences severe pain that is not relieved by physical therapy, bracing, and/or pain medications
 The spinal deformity is progressing
 The condition has caused compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots
 The deformity is of such a magnitude that it is likely to progress even once skeletal growth is complete

Spinal Fusion, fixation and deformity correction is the surgical options to correct the curve.